pcb-color

Routing Signals Between PCB Layers

Part 1: An ESD Example Signal Current Flow in a Layer Transition Abstract: Printed circuit board, PCB, signal paths must often change layers in a board stackup. Under some conditions this can cause problems. An ESD example is used to …
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An Introduction to Controlled Impedance for PCBs

What is Controlled Impedance? Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition (resistance) that a circuit presents to the passage of a current when a voltage is applied in an alternating current circuit.   It is represented by Zo:   Electrical …
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Cross Section Analysis: Inside a PCB

Cross-Section Analysis How can the internal quality of a printed circuit board be inspected and verified using cross section analysis? We previously published an article that talked about IPC Inspection guidelines that provides an overview of the standards used in …
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An Expert’s Guide to PCB Surface Finishes

Applying the surface finish is one of the last steps of manufacturing a printed circuit board. The surface finish on a PCB is typically applied after the soldermask process and is designed to prevent oxidation of the remaining exposed copper, …
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